A person can be only as human as his conscience! If we ask of the conscience of humanity, “What is this biggest international problem?” the answer will not be as definitive as „war, immigration and poverty“…
In this article I will attribute a main cause for the phenomena of refugee, immigration, racism, assimilation, and poverty. Almost all people throughout history and across the world have had to deal with these difficulties. These people have been in the interest of imperialists since the 19th century. Most of the migrations that take place are undesired nor preferred choices.
The millions of people who have had to flee devasted lands and destroyed cities in search of a new life because of a traumatic event, that not only affected them but also the homes and communities they left behind, is of course not resolved simply by the opening or closing of doors. The contemporary understanding reached today within a capitalist mentality, is that there is no real solution to this problem.
With the development of imperialism in the 20th century, the migration and refugee movement encompassing millions of people has been witnessed. We are now witnessing this trend to be increasing in the 21st century.
It is possible to find the cause of these problems by starting from a single concept.
Scientific data has revealed from the very beginning that the migration movement will accelerate with the withdrawal of the USA and NATO from Afghanistan 20 years later and the Taliban’s takeover of the country… The country was handed over to the Taliban, as it was 20 years ago. Those who were killed and those who had to leave their country were simply left aside as statistical figures. Most of the people cooperating with the occupation countries, on the other hand, almost all flocked to Turkey, which is one of the countries that receives the most immigrants after neighbouring countries Pakistan and Iran.
The invasion and destruction that started with the intervention of the USA and NATO in Afghanistan took place within a scientific scope. Today, this geography has served as a laboratory in the wars that are being waged in Iraq and Syria in the Middle East. The newly developed weapons were tested. The limits of human psychology and social psychology have also been examined.
Scientific enquiry in fact explains the economic, social, and political implications of the wars we experience today. It has been understood that in the wars and occupations initiated in various geographies, that by using „democracy, violations of human rights“, scientists under the control of the rulers are more inclined to kill instead of serve life.
With the addition of the economic problems in Africa, many people living in these regions have been forced to migrate collectively or individually through legal and illegal ways. The developments in this region all indicated that this would be the result from the events.
Towards the end of the twentieth century, the immigration problem, which was affected by the negative conditions, at first, brought by globalization, was greatly affected by global problems such as injustice in income distribution, civil war, war, human rights violations based on ethnic and religious problems, and the states that adopted the imperialist and capitalist mode of production to these problems. We witness that insensitivity gains a greater momentum when migrations caused by global warming and natural disasters are added.
The global migration problem in our world today has reached such a point that the total number of immigrants in the world has reached 271 million. This indicates an increase of over 40% since 2000. In the current century, more and more people have had to leave their homes and land because they have no other choice. We need to understand that the main reasons for the increase in migration are wars of interest, hunger, violence, fear, and adaptation problems.
As a result of the insatiable appetite of the sovereign and imperialist countries and these adverse conditions, regional and mass migration routes have emerged in many places around the world, and this problem has become a global migration problem that affects millions of people today… It has opened the door to many problems by directly or indirectly affecting not only the individual countries, but also the entire world. At the beginning of these problems is the racism and discrimination that stands before us as a disgrace to humanity.
As a result of all these negative conditions, regional and mass migration routes have emerged in many places around the world and this problem has turned into a global migration problem that affects millions of people today… The migration routes within the European Union (EU) are, Greece, Italy, and Poland. Serbia, which is on the European continent but kept outside the EU, has made a nightmare of its migration routes.
The Impact of War and Civil Wars on Global Migrations.
When we look at the common characteristics of the sending countries, all of these countries have problems related to security and risk to life arising from the regional wars or civil war. The source of these problems is the United States of America (USA), the European Union (EU), Israel’s regional and international policies, and the policies pursued by the United Kingdom. With all these facts, the contribution of gun monopolies and drug barons is substantial.
Even in a report announced by the United Nations (UN) High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), more than 84 million people in the world were displaced as of June 2021 due to reasons such as violence, insecurity, and climate change. According to data from UNHCR’s headquarters in Geneva, there were 82.4 million refugees in the world at the end of 2020. About 51 million of the refugees in question consisted of those who had to migrate to another place within their country of residence.
Especially from countries where civil wars and wars are intense, the number of people who fled their country in 2016 reached a record level with 20 million people. In this context, the economic and political turmoil that arose especially in the underdeveloped and developing countries after the events of September 11, can trace their cause to the terrorist acts, which are caused by wars and civil wars and are organized and supported by the imperialists. These events reveal the problems of security, life, and hunger in the origin countries of immigrants. To exemplify this, we can refer to the ethnic and religious violence, civil war and terrorism in Iraq, Palestine, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia, Syria, and Myanmar. All these problems force millions of people to leave their countries, both legally and illegally.
Again, according to United Nations (UN) data, a total of 2.5 million people were displaced in the first half of this year, 1.3 million from the Republic of Congo and 1.2 million from Ethiopia. Due to the violence in Myanmar and Afghanistan, many people living in these countries had to flee their country. Furthermore, the number of people seeking protection abroad has increased considerably.
The most important unseen war of humanity:
The effects of Global Warming and natural disasters on international migrations…
Another factor that makes the most important contribution to global migration is the insensitivity of the imperialist system and the climate migration caused by natural disasters due to global warming. Today, because of global climate changes, severe droughts and desertification are affecting some parts of the world. In short, while glaciers are melting on the one hand, climates are changing rapidly on the other. As a result, it is considered among the causes of global migration.
Drought and the consequent decrease in agricultural products.
As a result of rising sea level, melting of snow and glaciers, settlements on the coasts are flooded. Excessive evaporation, increase in meteorological disasters! It is inevitable that problems such as floods and landslides will increase, floods and the spread of contagious diseases will also increase.
In this context, I can see that the world is approaching the point of no return in global warming. By 2050, approximately 150 million people, fleeing from lands that have become unproductive and arid as a result of climate change and rising waters, will become „climate refugees“. For example, it is estimated that 30 million people will have to leave the places that will be flooded in India as a result of climate change caused by global warming alone. The sea level may rise by anywhere from 9 to 88 cm in this period. Again, in this framework, it is stated that the sea water level will rise more than half a meter in many European countries by 2050, 19 cities in the old continent will be affected by this and will be flooded, and the results of the rising water will be visible from 2050. Confirming the aforementioned issues; it is known that most of the people who are suffering from the following problems still live in South and Southeast Asia, the Middle East and the Mediterranean regions. They state that if this situation continues, until 2050, this problem will increase in these regions and 700 million to 2.8 billion people will be faced with migration problems due to population growth and global warming.
As a result of global warming, which causes changes in every climate system around the world, the effects will be felt by everyone. Today, the glaciers at the poles are melting, the sea water level is rising, and the soil losses in the coastal areas are increasing. Due to global warming, it is known that many hurricanes have occurred in some parts of the world, such as Hurricane Harvey which affected Central America and the US state of Texas, and Hurricane Irma which affected Florida. 5 million 600 thousand people were evacuated solely due to Hurricane Irma. Again, about 1 million people living in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Sri Lanka were evacuated from Hurricane Mahasen that occurred in the Indian Ocean in 2013. The correlation of the relationships between global migration and climate change and the highest migration regions and the climate changes in those regions is striking.
When we look at the recent migration movements, especially in the Far East, thousands of people living in these regions tend to become irregular migrants due to earthquakes, floods and tsunamis caused by natural disasters. Examples of this situation are, the earthquake in Indonesia in 2004, the flood heads in Germany and Turmiye, and the tsunami in Burma. Thousands of people have had to and will continue to migrate because of such natural disasters.
If a solution to this problem cannot be found today, there will be mass migrations in the future, at much larger scales than in the past. It is not difficult at all to make predictions about the future by analyzing the ‚causes and consequences of the ‚tribal migration‘ in real terms in today’s conditions. Considering that the same conditions and reasons will give the same results, it is essential to examine the migration movements that took place in the past very well and to draw lessons immediately.
To put it briefly, it is very important to renew national and international policies on the subject. Current policies have led humanity to disaster. It is essential to save people from wars, internal conflicts, exploitation and poverty. For this, first, it is necessary to stop the war and violence in the countries of origin of the immigrants in the world, and to stop the wars in the whole world in general. It is inevitable for states to produce and implement common policies with the UN and other international non-governmental organizations to help immigrants. It is possible to secure the future of humanity and our world with real practices, not showpieces.
Today, humanitarian movements towards global migration and related humanitarian aid issues complicate the solution of the problem. It can be evaluated that global migration can be prevented by investing in the development of the underdeveloped regions of the world, supporting employment in these areas and creating social safety nets. For this, it is important that the developed richer northern countries and the developing poorer southern countries work in unison towards a common solution.
Again, it is important for states to act together on issues such as conflict and climate change, which are seen as the main factors that force people to become displaced. Environmental protective measures should be taken to prevent global climate change, and within this framework, the countries that will be most affected by climate change and that can be a source of migration should be determined today and necessary measures should be taken against migration that may occur in these countries.
Firstly, we must equalize the unequal distribution of income in the world. If there is no change or improvement in the unjust income distribution within the century, wars and civil wars, and global problems related to global climate change, will cause a continuation of illegal, irregular, global, or whatever form of migration.
From the perspective of immigrants, their individual security, and human rights; non-governmental organizations and states must work on joint solutions so that immigrants are not exposed to modern slavery or human trafficking. This issue should be kept on the agenda and followed by both non-governmental organizations and states. Otherwise, modern slavery will be perpetuated in the modern age.
Nevertheless, the negative conditions that cause migration continue in the world, and if these conditions do not change in the future, they will continue to accelerate in the coming years as „Global or Mass Migration movements“.
I would like to underline the inadequacy of personnel who can cope with this ongoing process, who can compete in international academic environments, and who aim to prepare their infrastructure in the fields of migration management and social cohesion with the necessary equipment and qualitative-quantitative research methods.
The important thing is not to prevent migration with wire fences, but to manage it well and rationally, and this should always be kept in mind for all humanity. Accordingly, science, which functions to support life, has turned into a weapon that kills people in the hands of gun monopolies and sovereigns. Mankind, these policies should be abandoned immediately!